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671 S.E.2d 789
IN THE SUPREME COURT OF APPEALS OF WEST VIRGINIA
September 2008 Term
TIMBER RIDGE, INC.,
HUNT COUNTRY ASPHALT & PAVING, LLC,
and JEFFREY D. GREENBURG
Upon Certified Question from the
Unites States District Court for the
Northern District of West Virginia
The Honorable John Preston Bailey, Judge
Civil Action No. 3:05-cv-00016
CERTIFIED QUESTION ANSWERED
Submitted: September 23, 2008
Filed: December 10, 2008
| Curtis G. Power, III
Amanda M. Wiseley
Bowles Rice McDavid Graff
& Love, LLP
Attorneys for Plaintiff
| J. Michael Cassell
Campbell Miller Zimmerman, PC
Charles Town, West Virginia
Attorney for Defendants
JUSTICE BENJAMIN delivered the opinion of the Court.
JUSTICE ALBRIGHT not participating.
SENIOR STATUS JUSTICE MCHUGH sitting by temporary assignment.
SYLLABUS BY THE COURT
1. 'A de novo standard is applied by this court in addressing the legal
issues presented by certified question from a federal district or appellate court.' Syl. Pt. 1, Light v. Allstate Ins. Co., 203 W. Va. 27, 506 S.E.2d 64 (1998). Syllabus point 2, Aikens
v. Debow, 208 W. Va. 486, 541 S.E.2d 576 (2000).
2. The West Virginia Contractor Licensing Act, West Virginia Code §§
21-11-1, et seq. (1991), does not bar a contractor who is not properly licensed thereunder
from bringing or maintaining an action, including any counterclaim, in any court of this state
to recover performance compensation under a construction contract with a property owner.
In this case, the Court is presented with two questions regarding whether a
civil cause of action may be maintained against a landowner by a contractor unlicensed in
West Virginia for work done in West Virginia. These two questions, certified to the Court
by the United States District Court for the Northern District of West Virginia pursuant to the
Uniform Certification of Questions of Law Act, W. Va. Code §§ 51-1A-1, et seq. (1996),
by order dated January 14, 2008, arise from a motion by the landowner seeking summary
judgment against a counterclaim filed against it by the unlicensed contractor.
FACTUAL AND PROCEDURAL HISTORY
Plaintiff Timber Ridge, Inc. (hereinafter Timber Ridge), the landowner
herein, entered into a contract with defendant Hunt Country Asphalt & Paving, LLC, to
provide materials and labor for certain improvements of a camp for youths and adults in
Hampshire County, West Virginia, for a contract price of $109,610.00. At the time work
was being performed under the contract, defendants Hunt Country Asphalt & Paving, LLC
and Jeffrey Greenburg (See footnote 2)
(hereinafter collectively Hunt Country) did not have a West
Virginia contractor's license and had not obtained a West Virginia contractor's license at the
time of the district court's certification order.
Timber Ridge commenced this action against Hunt Country in the Circuit
Court of Hampshire County, West Virginia, on January 26, 2005, alleging breach of
contract, breach of warranty and negligence. After Hunt County removed the action to the
United States District Court for the Northern District of West Virginia, Timber Ridge filed
an amended complaint asserting breach of contract, breach of warranty, negligence and fraud
in the inducement. Hunt Country counterclaimed alleging that Timber Ridge had breached
their contract and seeking $80,000.00 in damages.
Thereafter, Timber Ridge filed a motion for summary judgment on Hunt
Country's counterclaim, claiming that Hunt County should not be permitted to pursue its
counterclaim because it did not have a West Virginia contractor's license when the contract
was entered into and while the work was being performed thereunder. The district court
deferred ruling upon the motion and instead certified the above questions to this Court.
By its order of January 14, 2008, the District Court certified two questions to
this Court pursuant to the Uniform Certification of Questions of Law Act, W.Va. Code §§
51-1A-1, et seq.
(1996). Based upon our interpretation of the underlying legal controversy,
being a motion for summary judgment by Timber Ridge, and with due consideration of the
language originally employed by the District Court, we have reformulated the second
question certified by the District Court, pursuant to W.Va. Code § 51-1A-4 (1996). (See footnote 3)
two questions certified for our review (noting our reformulation of the second question),
including the District Court's answers to the same, are:
1. Whether a contractor who does not have a West
Virginia contractor's license may utilize the
courts to maintain a claim or counterclaim against
the property owner?
The District Court answered in the negative.
2. If not, whether a contractor who does not have a
West Virginia contractor's license may utilize the
courts to maintain a claim or counterclaim against
the property owner in an attempt to prevent the
contractor from pursuing a civil cause of action
against the landowner?
The District Court answered in the negative.
For the reasons which follow, we answer the first question in the affirmative. By so
answering the first question, the second question is effectively mooted and we therefore
need not answer the second question.
STANDARD OF REVIEW
We have consistently recognized that '[a] de novo standard is applied by this
court in addressing the legal issues presented by certified question from a federal district or
appellate court.' Syl. Pt. 1, Light v. Allstate Ins. Co., 203 W. Va. 27, 506 S.E.2d 64 (1998)
Syl. pt. 2, Aikens v. Debow, 208 W. Va. 486, 541 S.E.2d 576 (2000). See also, Syl. pt. 1, Feliciano v. 7-Eleven, Inc., 210 W. Va. 740, 559 S.E.2d 713 (2001); Syl. pt. 1, T. Weston
Inc. v. Mineral County, 219 W. Va. 564, 638 S.E.2d 167 (2006). Accordingly, we proceed
with plenary review of the legal issues arising from the certified questions.
A. The West Virginia Contractor Licensing Act
The West Virginia Contractor Licensing Act, W. Va. Code §§ 21-11-1, et seq.
(1991) (hereinafter the Act), was established to enforce:
the policy of the state of West Virginia that all persons desiring
to perform contracting work in this state be duly licensed to
ensure capable and skilled craftsmanship utilized in
construction projects in this state, both public and private, fair
bidding practices between competing contractors through
uniform compliance with the laws of this state, and protection
of the public from unfair, unsafe and unscrupulous bidding and
W. Va. Code § 21-11-2 (1991). In order to enforce this policy, the Act declared that on and
after October 1, 1991,
no person shall engage in this state in any act as a contractor, as
defined in this article, unless such person holds a license issued
under the provisions of this article. No firm, partnership,
corporation, association or other entity shall engage in
contracting in this state unless an officer thereof holds a license
issued pursuant to this article.
W. Va. Code § 21-11-6(a) (1991). (See footnote 4)
Hunt Country concedes that it was a contractor as that term was defined by
the 1991 statutory enactment in effect when it entered into the September 2003, contract
with Timber Ridge and undertook to perform the work thereunder. Hunt County further
concedes that neither it nor any of its officers were licensed as a contractor in West Virginia
at the time the contract was entered into nor at any relevant time subsequent thereto.
West Virginia's relevant statutory law sets forth specific penalties for those
who engage in contracting activity in West Virginia without first be properly licensed. For
example, [u]pon a determination that a person is engaged in contracting business in the
state without a valid license, West Virginia Code § 21-11-13 (a) (2002) requires either the
commissioner of the West Virginia Department of Labor or the Contractor's Licensing
Board to issue a cease and desist order requiring such person to immediately cease all
operations in the state. Any such cease and desist order shall be withdrawn upon the
issuance of a licence to such person. W. Va. Code § 21-11-13 (a) (2002). This statute
further provides for the imposition of monetary and criminal penalties to be imposed after
hearing in certain defined circumstances. W. Va. Code § 21-11-13 (2002). The statute is
silent as to any prohibition of the bringing or maintaining of any civil action by an
unlicensed contractor against a landowner, regardless of the landowner's knowledge of the
contractor's license status.
B. Arguments of the Parties
Timber Ridge contends that the district court answered the first certified
question correctly, namely, that a contractor who does not have a contractor's license under
the Act may not utilize the courts of this state to maintain a claim or counterclaim against
the property owner. Timber Ridge claims that a majority of cases decided by courts in other
states have so held under their contractor licensing acts, even though their acts, like the West
Virginia Act, do not contain an express provision so providing. The rationale of those
decisions, according to Timber Ridge, is that contractor licensing acts are designed to protect
the public, as is the West Virginia Act, and that to allow an unlicensed contractor to use the
courts of this state to recover compensation for its performance under a construction contract
with a property owner would defeat the purpose of the contractor licensing acts and
encourage unlicensed contractors to do construction work in the state, rather than deter them.
Hunt Country, on the other hand, argues that since the Act imposes a burden
or duty upon contractors that did not exist at common law prior to 1991, the Act must be
strictly construed by this Court, rather than expanded by the Court to include provisions not
placed there by the Legislature. Hunt Country identifies the specific penalties, including
criminal penalties, to which the Legislature has made an unlicensed contractor subject, and,
as Hunt Country points out, barring an unlicensed contractor from accessing the courts of
the state for recovery of performance compensation is not such a penalty. Accordingly, Hunt
Country argues that since the Legislature, as a matter of public policy, has not, but could
have, barred such access, this Court should not fill that omission by writing into the Act that
which the Legislature for whatever reason has not chosen to do.
We agree with Hunt Country, that it is not the province of this Court to do
what the Legislature, in its proper role, could have, but has not done: namely, to bar an
unlicensed contractor from accessing the courts of this state to recover performance
compensation under a construction contract with a property owner. Conversely, we disagree
with the District Court's conclusion in this regard. While Timber Ridge's argument may
have merit, it is made in the wrong forum, the judicial branch, rather than the legislative
branch, of state government.
Our review of West Virginia law demonstrates to us that the Legislature can
and has considered as a matter of public policy whether it should bar an unlicensed person
or entity from accessing the state's courts as an additional penalty for not being properly
licensed. Specifically, in at least two other statutory sections concerning licensures, the
Legislature has specifically barred access to the state's courts as a penalty for being
unlicensed. First, in the Real Estate Appraiser Licensing and Certification Act, W. Va. Code
§§ 30-38-1, et seq.
(2001), which governs the licensing of real estate appraisers and bars
collection of fees by unlicensed appraisers, wherein unlicensed real estate appraisers are
statutorily barred from bringing or maintaining an action to recover a fee for services for
which a license is required. W.Va. Code § 30-38-16(2001). Specifically, W. Va. Code §
30-38-16 (2001) provides:
No person engaged in the business of real estate
appraising in this state or acting in the capacity of a real estate
appraiser in this state may bring or maintain an action in any
court of this state to collect compensation for the
performance of real estate appraisal services for which a
license is required by this article without alleging and proving
that he or she was the holder of a valid real estate appraiser
license in this state at all times during the performance of such
(Emphasis added.) Similarly, the West Virginia Real Estate License Act, W. Va. Code §§
30-40-1, et seq. (2002), which governs the licensing of real estate agents, likewise precludes
collection actions by unlicensed persons. Such bar is contained in W. Va. Code § 30-40-25
(2002), which provides:
No person may bring or maintain any action in any
court in this state for the recovery of compensation for the
performance of any act or service for which a broker's
license is required, without alleging and proving that he or she
was the holder of a valid broker's license at all times during the
performance or rendering of any act or service: Provided, That
an associate broker or salesperson shall have the right to
institute suit in his or her own name for the recovery of
compensation from his or her employing broker for acts or
services performed while in the employ of said employing
(Emphasis added.) The Legislature therefore can and has specifically utilized the preclusion
of the bringing or maintaining of a civil action in the courts of this state as a penalty for an
individual or entity not being properly licensed.
In this matter, Timber Ridge would have this Court judicially insert court
access penalty provisions, like those quoted above, into the West Virginia Contractor
Licensing Act, W.Va. Code § 21-11-1, et seq., and thus do what the Legislature has
heretofore chosen not to do. To do so, we believe, would clearly exceed our mandate as a
judicial body. Moreover, were we to do so, we would risk creating precedent for inserting
comparable court access penalty provisions into all acts of the Legislature which relate to
licensing, including those related to professions, occupations, and businesses _ regardless
of the fact that such provisions do not now have such penalty provisions.
Should we seek to exceed our proper authority, the potential for mischief by
setting bad precedent is readily apparent. For example, suppose that an unlicensed
contractor has already received compensation for contract performance in the contractor
setting. Should this Court, in the interest of protecting the public, judicially require, when
requested, that the compensation be returned regardless of the quality and sum of the work
performed? Or, in such a situation, should we judicially impose upon the unlicensed
contractor a penalty in some multiple of the amount received? Of course not. We should
not seek to impose by judicial order what the Legislature has had the opportunity to do, but
has chosen not to do. (See footnote 5) Thus, we now hold that the West Virginia Contractor Licensing Act,
West Virginia Code §§ 21-11-1, et seq. (1991), does not bar a contractor who is not properly
licensed thereunder from bringing or maintaining an action, including any counterclaim, in
any court of this state to recover performance compensation under a construction contract
with a property owner. It is the province of the Legislature, not this Court, to impose such
Having so answered the first certified question in the affirmative, we believe
the underlying legal issue which prompted the District Court to issue its January 14, 2008
order is resolved, and that the second question is effectively mooted.. We therefore decline
to answer the second certified question. See Calvert v. Scharf, 217 W.Va. 684, 619 S.E.2d
197 (2005) (The Supreme Court need not answer all of the questions certified to it where
it was only necessary to answer one question to resolve the issue in question).
Accordingly, for the reasons stated herein, we answer the first certified
question in the affirmative. In view of this Court's answer to the first certified question, it
is not necessary for the Court to answer the second certified question.
Pursuant to an administrative order entered on September 11, 2008, the Honorable
Thomas E. McHugh, Senior Status Justice, was assigned to sit as a member of the Supreme
Court of Appeals commencing September 12, 2008, and continuing until the Chief Justice
determines that assistance is no longer necessary, in light of the illness of Justice Joseph P.
It appears that Jeffrey Greenburg is the owner of Hunt Country Asphalt & Paving,
According to W.Va. Code § 51-1A-4 (1996), [t]he Supreme Court of Appeals of
West Virginia may reformulate a question certified to it. Here, we have reformulated the
second question for purposes of clarity as such question, based upon our review of the
District Court's certifying order, relates directly to the first question and raises the issue of
whether the landowner herein may seek summary judgment against the unlicensed
contractor's counterclaim where the landowner knew that the contractor was not licensed in
The District Court originally framed the second question as follows:
2. Whether a landowner's knowledge of the contractor's
unlicensed status estops the landowner from raising the
contractor's unlicensed status.
The District Court answered in the negative.
W.Va. Code § 21-11-6(a) was modified in 2004 to provide that [n]o person may
engage in this State in any act as a contractor, or submit a bid to perform work as a
as defined in this article, unless . . . . W.Va. Code § 21-11-6(a) (2004) (emphasis
on changes made to statutory language in 2004). These statutory changes do not affect our
analysis of the two certified questions at issue herein.
The term contractor is defined, in pertinent part, by W. Va. Code § 21-11-3 (c)
a person who in any capacity for compensation, other than as an
employee of another, undertakes, offers to undertake, purports
to have the capacity to undertake, or submits a bid to construct,
alter, repair, add to, subtract from, improve, move, wreck or
demolish any building, highway, road, railroad, structure or
excavation associated with a project, development or
improvement, or to do any part thereof, including the erection of
scaffolding or other structures or works in connection therewith,
where the cost of the undertaking is one thousand dollars or
Subsequent statutory amendments increased the minimum dollar amount to two thousand five
hundred dollars and made non-substantive grammatical changes. See
, W. Va. Code § 21-11-
3 (c) (2007).
The Legislature has already shown that it can expressly attach such penalties to
situations involving the lack of proper licensure. For example, in W. Va. Code § 30-39-4(c)
(2001), the Legislature has provided that any consideration received by an unregistered
athletic agent under an agency contract shall be returned. Further, the Legislature has
declared that any unlicensed real estate broker or unlicensed real estate appraiser who has
received compensation for acts or services performed for a fee, commission, compensation
or profit shall be subject to a penalty of not less than the sum of the compensation received
nor more than three times such sum, as may be determined by a court. See W. Va. Code §
30-38-15 (c) (2001) (real estate appraisers); W. Va. Code § 30-40-22 (g) (2002) (real estate