IN THE SUPREME COURT OF APPEALS OF WEST
September 1997 Term
KEVIN R. PILLING AND JANET E. PILLING,
NATIONWIDE MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY
AND RALPH ECKENRODE,
NATIONWIDE MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY,
Appeal from the Circuit Court of Berkeley
Honorable Thomas W. Steptoe, Jr., Judge
Civil Action No. 95-C-30
Submitted: October 15, 1997
Filed: December 17, 1997
D. Lorensen, Esq.
Gompers, McCarthy, Hill & McClure Bowles Rice McDavid Graff & Love
Weirton, West Virginia Martinsburg, West Virginia
and Attorneys for Appellant Nationwide
M. Kent Carper, Esq.
Hill, Peterson, Carper, Bee & Deitzler
Charleston, West Virginia
Attorneys for Appellees
The Opinion of the Court was delivered PER CURIAM.
SYLLABUS BY THE COURT
"Where the provisions of an
insurance policy contract are clear and unambiguous they are not
subject to judicial construction or interpretation, but full
effect will be given to the plain meaning intended ."
Syllabus, Keffer v. Prudential Ins. Co 153 W.Va. 813, 172 S.E.2d
"Language in an insurance policy
should be given its plain, ordinary meaning." Syl. Pt. 1,
Soliva v. Shand, Morahan & Co., 176 W.Va. 430, 345 S.E.2d 33
3. "'Whenever the language of an insurance policy provision is reasonably susceptible of two different meanings or is of such doubtful meaning that reasonable minds might be uncertain or disagree as to its meaning, it is ambiguous.' Syl. Pt. 1, Prete v. Merchants Property Ins. Co., 159 W.Va. 508, 223 S.E.2d 441 (1976)." Syl. Pt. 1, State v. Janicki 188 W.Va. 100, 422 S.E.2d 822 (1992).
4. "The mere fact that parties do not agree to the construction of a contract does not render it ambiguous. The question as to whether a contract is ambiguous is a question of law to be determined by the court." Syl. Pt. 1, Berkeley County Public Service District v. Vitro Corp. of America, 152 W.Va. 252, 162 S.E.2d 189 (1968).
Per Curiam:See footnote 1
Mutual Insurance Company (hereinafter "Appellant" or
"Nationwide") appeals a declaratory
judgment in the lower court finding coverage under the homeowner
policy of Nationwide's insured, Mr. and Mrs. Kevin R. Pilling
(hereinafter "Plaintiffs" or "Appellees") for
damages caused by the rupture of water pipes in the Appellees'
home. Nationwide contends that the lower court erred in finding
coverage under the relevant policy language. We conclude that the
lower court erred in finding coverage under the Appellees'
homeowner's policy for damages to their home caused by ruptured
water pipes. We therefore reverse the decision of the lower
In January 1994, the Appellees returned home and discovered that the water pipes in the home had ruptured, causing extensive damage to the property. The Appellees
filed a claim under their homeowners policy with Nationwide,
and Nationwide denied coverage based upon the following policy
language: "We cover direct physical loss to property . . .
caused by: 3. Explosion. This peril does not include shock waves
caused by aircraft (sonic boom), electrical arcing, water hammer
and rupture of water pipes."
filed a declaratory judgement action, seeking a ruling by the
lower court, and contending that the "rupture of water
pipes" language was modified by "shock waves caused
by." The Appellee further maintained that the policy
language did not exclude rupture of water pipes from coverage.
The lower court found the language ambiguous, construed the
ambiguous language in favor of the insured, and held that the
policy language did not exclude rupture of water pipes from
coverage. Nationwide now appeals that ruling, maintaining that
the language eliminates four specific perils from coverage: shock
waves caused by aircraft; electrical arcing; water hammer damage;
and rupture of pipes. Nationwide argues that it would stretch the
imagination to believe that the language could refer to shock
waves caused by electrical arcing, for instance. The "caused
by" language, in Nationwide's estimation, only refers back
to "shock waves," and does not modify the electrical
arcing, water hammer, or rupture of pipes. Nationwide maintains
that "rupture of pipes" stands on its own, without
modification, and specifically eliminates pipe rupture from
syllabus of Keffer v. Prudential Insurance Co., 153 W.Va. 813,
172 S.E.2d 714 (1970), this Court explained: "Where the
provisions of an insurance policy contract are clear and
unambiguous they are not subject to judicial construction or
interpretation, but full effect will be given to the plain
meaning intended ." We also explained in
syllabus point one of Soliva v. Shand, Morahan & Co., 176
W.Va. 430, 345 S.E.2d 33 (1986), that "[l]anguage in an
insurance policy should be given its plain, ordinary
STANDARD OF REVIEW
determination of whether ambiguity exists is a legal question
which is reviewed de novo at the appellate level. In Payne v.
Weston, 195 W.Va. 502, 466 S.E.2d 161 (1995), we discussed the
standard of review, acknowledging that "[t]he interpretation
of an insurance contract, including the question of whether the
contract is ambiguous, is a legal determination which, like the
court's summary judgment, is reviewed de novo on appeal."
Id. at 506-507, 466 S.E.2d at 165-66.
DEFINITION OF "AMBIGUITY"
In syllabus point one of State v. Janicki 188 W.Va. 100, 422 S.E.2d 822 (1992), we explained that "'[w]henever the language of an insurance policy provision is reasonably susceptible of two different meanings or is of such doubtful meaning that reasonable minds might be uncertain or disagree as to its meaning, it is ambiguous.' Syl. Pt. 1, Prete v. Merchants Property Ins. Co., 159 W.Va. 508, 223 S.E.2d 441 (1976)."
In syllabus point one of Berkeley County Public Service District v. Vitro Corp. of America, 152 W.Va. 252, 162 S.E.2d 189 (1968), this Court cautioned that "[t]he mere fact that parties do not agree to the construction of a contract does not render it ambiguous. The question as to whether a contract is ambiguous is a question of law to be determined by the court." Id. at 267, 162 S.E.2d at 200. See also Eggleston v. West Virginia Dept. of Highways, 189 W.Va. 230, 429 S.E.2d 636 (1993). This Court also cautioned in Payne, however, that "a court should read policy provisions to avoid ambiguities and not torture the language to create them." 195 W. Va. at 507, 466 S.E.2d at 166. Construction of the language is undertaken only when it is determined that an actual ambiguity exists.See footnote 2 2 "Only if the court makes the determination that the contract cannot be given a certain and definite
legal meaning, and is therefore ambiguous, can a question of
fact be submitted to the jury as to the meaning of the contract.
It is only when the document has been found to be ambiguous that
the determination of intent through extrinsic evidence become a
question of fact." Id.
the contract at issue in the present case is poorly drafted, its
meaning can still be discerned. There is disagreement between the
parties regarding the proper interpretation of the language, but
as we emphasized in Berkeley County Public Service District, such
disagreement does not render the language ambiguous. 152 W. Va.
at 200, 162 S.E.2d at 267. In our de novo review of the
determination of whether ambiguity exists, we conclude that the
language is not ambiguous. The language declares that Nationwide
covers direct physical loss to property caused by explosion.
"Explosion," however, does not include four specified
things: (1) shock waves caused by aircraft; (2) electrical
arcing; (3) water hammer; or (4) rupture of water pipes. We
conclude that the lower court erred in determining that the
language was ambiguous and in finding that the Appellees were
entitled to coverage under this policy language. We therefore
reverse the decision of the lower court.
Footnote: 1 1 We point out that a per curiam opinion is not legal precedent. See Lieving v. Hadley, 188 W. Va. 197, 201 n.4, 423 S.E.2d 600, 604 n.4. (1992) ("Per Curiam opinions ... are used to decide only the specific case before the Court; everything in a per curiam opinion beyond the syllabus point is merely obiter dicta .... Other courts, such as many of the United States Circuit Court of Appeals, have gone to non-published (not-to-be- cited) opinions to deal with similar cases. We do not have such a specific practice, but instead use published per curiam opinions. However, if rules of law or accepted ways of doing things are to be changed, then this Court will do so in a signed opinion, not a per curiam opinion.")
Footnote: 2 2 Regarding construction of insurance contracts, syllabus point two of Janicki instructs: "'It is well[-]settled law in West Virginia that ambiguous terms in insurance contracts are to be strictly construed against the insurance company and in favor of the insured.' Syl. Pt. 4, National Mut. Ins. Co. v. McMahon & Sons, Inc., 177 W.Va. 734, 356 S.E.2d 488 (1987)." Janicki also addresses the doctrine of reasonable expectations, applicable only where the language in an insurance policy is ambiguous.